Faktor Manusia

Manusia adalah faktor yang paling penting dalam interaksi manusia dan komputer. Karena manusia sebagai pembuat dan pengguna sangatlah di utamankan. Faktor manusia dapat dipandang sebagai sistem pemroses informasi:

Manusia merupakan aspek penting dalam sebuah sistem komputer, untuk membuat keseimbangan antara model sistem komputer dan manusia sebagai pengguna, maka perancang sistem juga harus memodelkan manusia dengan cara yang sama. Hal ini tidak mudah, karena manusia lebih susah untuk diprediksi, kurang konsisten dan kurang deterministik dibandingkan komputer

  1. informasi diterima dan ditanggapi melalui saluran input-output (indera)
  2. informasi disimpan dalam ingatan (memori)
  3. informasi diproses dan diaplikasikan dalam berbagai cara
TUJUAN PERANCANGAN ANTARMUKA PEMAKAI
  • Penentuan sasaran masyarakat pemakai dan tugas-tugasnya sangat penting.
  • Desain yang baik bagi komunitas yang satu bisa tidak sesuai bagi komunitas lainnya.
  • Desain yang efisien bagi sekumpulan tugas dapat tidak efisien bagi kumpulan lainnya.

Informasi pada manusia diterima dan direspon melalui sejumlah saluran input output di bawah ini:

  1. Saluran penglihatan (visual channel)
  2. Saluran pendengaran (auditory channel)
  3. Saluran peraba (heptic channel)
  4. Pergerakan (movement)

PEMODELAN SISTEM PENGOLAHAN

  • Model sistem pengolahan manusia terdiri dari pengolahan perseptual, pengolahan intelektual dan pengendalian motorik yang beinteraksi dengan memori manusia.
  • Model sistem komputer terdiri dari pengolah (processor) dan memori. Interaksi keduanya melalui bus

PENGENDALIAN MOTORIK

Pengendalian motorik pada manusia dapat dilatih untuk mencapai taraf tertentu seperti mengetik 10 jari untuk kecepatan 1000 huruf permenit

 

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Pengoprasian Mouse

Pengendalian mouse membutuhkan program pengendali atau mouse driver, lewat driver ini lah komunikasi antara mouse dan sistem komputer terjadi. Fasilitas Interupsi yang sudah ada pada sistem komputer pun ikut berperan untuk “merasakan” seluruh kegiatan mouse . Pengoprasian mouse dimulai dari menditeksi terpasang tidaknya driver, dengan cara memanggil prosedur InitMouse, yang menghasilkan perubahan yg menunjukan terpasang tidaknya mouse, bila sudah terditeksi mouse, prosedur ini juga mencatat banyaknya tombol pada mouse yang terpasang .

Dilihat dari sensornya, terdapat  3 macam mouse :
  1. Mouse mekanik, yaitu mouse dengan sensor mekanik berupa bola karet/logam di sisi bawah mouse yang dapat berputar ke semua arah. Sensor mekanik tersebut mendeteksi arah putar bola dan menggerakkan pointer/kursor pada layar sesuai arah tersebut
  2. Mouse optomekanik, sama dengan mouse mekanik tetapi menambahkan sensor optic untuk mendeteksi gerakan dari bola mouse.
  3. Mouse optik, menggunakan sinar laser atau sinar LED (Light Emitting Diode) untuk mendeteksi pergerakan mouse.

Parameter Mouse

Interupsi merupakan sebuah prosedur build-in yang mempunyai beberapa argumen yang di perlukan untuk mengaktifkan interupsi tersebut.Dimaksud argument tersebut ialah kegiatan mouse seperti bergeser, meng-klik, meng-scroll dan mencatat apakah interupsi berhasil di kerjakan. Dalam prakteknya argumen tersebut ditempatkan di dalam register M1

Anatomi Kursor Mouse

Prosedur UbahKursor yang tersaji adalah prosedur yang digunakan untuk merubah bentuk kursor mouse, dari bentuk standar yaitu panah, menjadi bentuk yang lain sesuai yang diinginkan seperti glove, pen atau yang lainnya

Pengecekan Lokasi Kursor

Dalam semua program GUI kursor sangatlah berperan penting untuk mengeksekusi perintah, maka ada prosedur yang menentukan kursor pada posisi yang diinginkan atau tidak, seperti contohnya mengeksekusi icon atau meng-expand menu yang mengeluarkan perintah lain tanpa harus di klik.

 

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Piranti Interaktif

Piranti-piranti masukan/keluaran yang dapat mendukung operasionalisasi teknik antarmuka grafis dapat dikelompokkan menjadi 3 kelompok besar : piranti masukan tekstual, piranti penunjuk dan pengambil (pointing and picking device) dan layar tampilan.

Peranti Masukan Tekstual

Piranti masukan tekstual dapat dikatakan sebagai piranti masukan standar yang dijumpai pada semua komputer. Piranti masukan tekstual lebih dikenal dengan sebutan papan ketik (keyboard). Oleh pengguna, data akan diketikkan lewat papan ketik yang tergandeng ke sistem komputer sebelum data diolah oleh komputer yang dimaksud.

a. Tata letak QWERTY

Tombol-tombol dalam papan ketik dapat dikelompokkan menjadi empat bagian, yaitu tombol fungsi (function key), tombol alphanumerik (alphanumeric key), tombol kontrol (control key), dan tombol numerik (numeric keypad).

Meskipun tata letak QWERTY sangat luas pemakaiannya, tetapi mempunyai beberapa kelemahan atau ketakefisienan pada penggunaannya. Sebagai contoh, 48 persen dari gerakan di antara tara kunci-kunci yang berurutan harus dilakukan dengan sebuah tangan. Dari sekian banyak ketukan yang harus dikerjakan, hanya 32 persen yang dilakukan pada home row, sehingga untuk berbaris-baris  yang lain, jari tangan harus melakukan pencapaian yang tentu saja memerlukan usaha yang lebih besar. Pengguna papan ketik dengan tata letak QWERTY mempunyai beban pengetikan tangan kiri sebesar 56 persen, yang lebih cocok digunakan bagi mereka yang kidal.

Kelemahan yang lain adalah bahwa ada kata-kata yang harus diketik oleh tangan sebelah, misalnya ‘sadar’, ‘teras’, dan ‘cara’. Selain itu, jika kita mengetik kata yang banyak mengandung huruf “a”, maka jari kelingking yang paling lemah ternyata harus menanggung beban yang lebih berat.

b. Tata Letak Dvorak

Ketidakefisenan yang dijumpai pada tata letak QWERTY dicoba diperbaiki oleh tata letak yang disebut Dvorak yang dirancang tahun 1932. Tata letak Dvorak menggunakan susunan papan ketik yang sama, tetapi susunan hurufnya disusun sedemikian rupa sehingga tangan kanan dibebani lebih banyak pekerjaan dibanding dengan tangan kiri. Selain itu, tata letak Dvorak dirancang 70 persen dari ketukan jatuh pada home row, sehingga jari-jemari yang harus mencapai huruf-huruf yang tidak berada pada posisi home row, mempunya kerja yang lebih ringan, sehingga mengurangi adanya kelelahan karena pengetikan.

c.Tata Letak Alphabetik

Tombol-tombol yang ada pada papan ketik dengan tata letak alphabetik disusun persis seperti pada tata letak QWERTY maupun Dvorak, tetapi susunan hurufnya berurutan seperti pada urutan alphabet.

d. Tata Letak Klockenberg

Operator yang sering melakukan pengetikan sering mengeluh karena adanya beban otot yang berlebihan, terutama pada jari-jemari dan pergelangan tangan. Sehingga, diperlukan suatu tata letak yang dapat mengurangi beban otot yang berlebihan tersebut yang salah satunya adalah tata letak Klockenberg.

Tipe Layar Tampilan

Berdasar jenis-jenis adapter yang disajikan di atas, dikenal pula beberapa jenis layar tampilan untuk bisa dipakai bersama-sama dengan salah satu dari adapter tampilan di atas. Layar tampilan bisa dikelompokkan ke dalam lima tipe yang dijelaskan sebagai berikut.

Direct-drive Monochrome Monitor. Tipe layar tampilan ini biasanya digunakan untuk adapter dari jenis MDA atau EGA. Layar tampilan jenis ini hanya menyajikan warna latar depan (foreground) dan warna latar belakang (background).

Composite Monochrome Monitor. Tipe layar ini digunakan bersama-sama dengan adapter dari jenis CGA. Tipe layar ini hanya bisa menyajikan sebuah warna latar depan, dan hanya dapat digunakan bersama-sama dengan adapter dari jenis CGA. Saat ini, layar dengan tipe ini sudah jarang ditemui, karena resolusi dan jumlah yang dapat ditampilkannya memang tidak banyak.

Composite Color MonitorTipe layar ini dapat menghasilkan teks dan grafik berwarna (color). Meskipun demikian, tipe layar ini mempunyai resolusi yang jelek, sehingga gambar yang dihasilkan tidak bagus. Tipe layar tampilan ini harus digunakan bersama-sama dengan adapter dari jenis CGA.

Red-Green-Blue Monitor. Tipe layar ini lebih dikenal dengan sebutan RGB Monitor(RGB=Red-Green-Blue). Tipe layar RGB lebih baik dibanding dengan composite color monitor karena layar tampilan ini memproses isyarat warna merah, hijau, dan biru secara terpisah. Dengan demikian, teks dan grafik yang dihasilkan juga lebih halus.

Variable-Frequency MonitorAdapter tampilan yang berbeda seringkali membangkitkan isyarat yang berbeda pula, sehingga ada beberapa layar tampilan yang tidak bisa dipasang dengan adapter tertentu. Layar tampilan ini memungkinkan kita untuk menggunakan adapter tampilan yang berbeda, sehingga apabila ada teknologi adapter penampil yang lebih baru, kita tidak perlu layar tampilan yang baru pula. cukup sekian tugas resume piranti interakti yg telah di kerjalan oleh saya

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ASPEK ERGONOMI

Keuntungan Penerapan Ergomomi

  1. Produktifitas meningkat
  2. Aktifitas lebih baik karena adanya faktor kenyamanan layanan dalam melakukan pekerjaan.
  3. hasil kerja lebih baik karena sistem yang diopersikan lebih familiar
  4. Efisiensi dan efektif dalam pengoperasian sistem.

Prinsip-prinsip ergonomi

  1. Prinsip physical
    1. Jadikanlah segala sesuatu mudah dijangkau
    2. Bekerja dengan tinggi yang sesuai
    3. Bekerja dengan postur yang sesuai
    4. Mengurangi pengeluaran tenaga yang berlebihan
    5. Meminimalkan keletihan/kepenatan
    6. Mengurangi pengulangan yang berlebihan
    7. Memberikan jarak ruang dan akses
    8. Meminimalkan kontak atau hubungan stress
    9. Memberikan bobilisasi dan merubah posisi
    10. Menciptakan leingkungan yang menyenangkan pencahayaan, temperatur dan mengecilkan getaran.
  2. Prisip kognitif
    1. Adanya standarisasi
    2. Menghubungkan APSI dan persepsi
    3. Mempermudah pemaparan suatu informasi
    4. Menyajikan informasi pada level yang tepat secara detail
    5. Memberikan gambaran yang jelas
    6. Membuat pola yang benar dan pengelompokan data yang jelas
    7. Memberikan umpan balik secara cepat.

Pencahayaan

Tujuan pencahayaan ;

a.       Menghindari user dari cahaya terang langsugn dari pantulannya

b.      Memperoleh keseimbangan antar kecerahan layar tampilan dan kecerahan pencahayaan yang ada di depan user.

c.       Menghidari cahaya langsung atau pantulan yang langsung mengenai layar tampilan.

d.      Memberiakn keyakinan bahwa ada pencahayaan yang cukup untuk perkejaan yang tidak menggunakan layar tampilan.

Sumber cahaya

a.       Cahaya langsung bersala dari matahari dan lampu yang langsung menerobos ke ruang pekerjaan lewat jendela.

b.      Cahaya tidak langsung, dipantulkan oleh tembok atau partisi platfon lantai, bahan yang disekitar monitor, permukaan meja dan pakaian yang digunakan oleh operator.

c.       Panas yang berlebihan dari suhu komputer, untuk mengatasi hal tersebut maka diperlukan tata ruang yang dapat meredam dan menstabilkan cahaya dan suhu ruangan yang nyaman untuk menjaga keawetan peralatan.

 

Gangguan suara

Berasal dari AC, komputer, manusia, suara speaker dan peralatan lain yang mengakbiatkan tergangnunya konstrasi user / pengguna dalam melangsungkan aktifitas

Ergonomik

  1. Kenyamanan dalam menjalankan aktifitas
  2. Keseimbangan dari semua aspek
  3. Aspek menggambarkan suasana kerja yang familiar
  4. Ruangan yang artistik
  5. Lingkungan yangmeningkatkan hasil kerja
  6. Keserasian dari tata letak pencahaan, prilaku, sistem yang familiar dapat meningkatkan pengembangan organisasi.

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